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METAL MINE ? ? ȝ 520 ? 2019 q第 10 ? 矿区桥梁变Ş监测的三l激光扫描技? օ?Q? 陈冉? ? ? ? ?Q? 周大?Q?1 Q? 1. 江苏省资源环境信息工E重点实验室Q江?徐州 221116Q?. 中国矿业大学环境与测l学院,江苏 徐州 221116Q? 3 . 矛_庄铁路职业技术学院,沛_ 矛_?050041 4. 江西理工大学应用U学学院Q江?赣州 341000Q? ??在桥梁变形监中Q多采用全站仪或 GPS Ҏ上少数关键点的坐标进行单点监,存在外业力_? 度大、效率低{不I同时׃观测Ҏ量有限,仅能表现桥梁部分l构下沉及移动信息,对于桥梁l构变Ş监测 一直缺乏有效的技术手Dc以位于某矿区铁路桥煤柱二块工作面?8201 工作面上方的桥梁为监对象,使用 Riegl VZ-1000 型三l激光扫描AQ获取了两期铁\桥加固后完整的点云数据,通过拟合关键部位重心、特征线{? 步骤Q较为精且全面地得到桥梁位Ud倾斜信息Q反映出桥梁在空间三个维度上的姿态变化。通过Ҏ体侧? q行_化徏模,获得桥梁l构上的变Ş信息Q分析是׃沉降及倾斜不均匀D桥边跨、桥q位置产生的弯 曌Ӏ扭剪应力效果,造成桥梁l构损坏。研I表明:使用三维Ȁ光扫描技术进行矿区桥梁变形监,丰富了桥梁变 形监中数据的展现Ş式,H破了传l监方法中单点监测的限Ӟ有助于大q提升矿区桥梁等建筑物变形监? _ֺ和工作效率? 关键?三维Ȁ光扫描技?桥梁 变Ş监测 下沉 倾斜 中图分类?TD17QP237 文献标志?A 文章~号 1001-1250Q?019Q?10-188-06 DOI 10.19614/j.cnki.jsks.201910030 Mine Bridge Subsidence Monitoring Based on 3D Laser Scanning Technique 1 Q? Chen Ranli3 Wu Kan2 Wang Rui2Q? Zhou Dawei1Q?2 Gu Yuanyuan Q? 1. Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information Engineering of Jiangsu ProvinceQXuzhou 221116QChinaQ? 2 . School of Environment Science and Spatial InformaticsQChina University of Mining and TechnologyQXuzhou 221116Q? ChinaQ?. Shijiazhuang Railway Vocational and Technical CollegeQShijiazhuang 050041QChinaQ? 4 . School of Applied ScienceQJiangxi University of Science and TechnologyQGanzhou 341000QChinaQ? Abstract In the process of monitoring bridge deformationQthe conventional monitoring method usually uses the total station or GPS to perform single-point monitoring on the coordinates of a few key points on the bridgeQwhich has the disadvan? tages of high labor intensity and low efficiency in the fieldQand only can be expressed due to the limited number of observa? tion points.The sinking and moving information of the bridge structure has been lack of effective technical means for the defor? mation monitoring of the bridge structure.In this paperQthe bridge over 08201 working face and railway bridge coal pillar No.2 working face of a mining area is used as the monitoring object.The Riegl VZ-1000 3D laser scanner is used to obtain the com? plete point cloud data after the reinforcement of the two railway bridges.It is more accurate by fitting the key points of the key parts and the characteristic lines.The bridge displacement and tilt information is comprehensively obtainedQreflecting the atti? tude variation of the bridge in three dimensions of space. Fine-tuning the side of the bridge body to obtain the deformation of the bridge structureQand analyzing the bending and torsional shear stress effects of the bridge span and the bridge arch due to uneven settlement and tiltingQresulting in structural damage.The study results show that the application of 3D laser scanning enriches the display form of data in bridge monitoringQbreaks through the limitation of single point monitoring in traditional monitoring methodsQbesides thatQit is also help for improving the precise and efficiency of deformation monitoring of bridges and other buildings in mining area. Keywords 3D laser scanning techniqueQBridgeQDeformation monitoringQSubsidenceQTilt 基收EKҎ目期 ?01??0?-U?7学基金项目(~号Q?1604266Q? 作者简?օ元(1996—)Q男Q硕士研I生。通讯作? ?侃(1963—)Q男Q教授,博士Q博士研I生导师? · 188 · օ元等Q矿区桥梁变形监的三维Ȁ光扫描技? 2019q第10? 桥梁q蝲负荷大,其安全运营一直是Zx 的重炚w题。通过变Ş监测Ҏ判断桥梁健康状况 q进行预警,是桥梁生产运营阶D不可或~的一 环。桥梁变形监内容主要包括桥墩变形、桥面线 工作面上部地表(?1Q。全长约 48.63 mQ共三跨? 拱桥上部l构是由拱圈及其上方的构件组成。桥? 净?4.5 mQ包括行车道、h行道及两侧的栏杆{构 Q?Q? ?。该区域内地貌类型属于丘陵与山前倾斜q_ q渡cdQ地表有一定的起伏Q以低缓丘陵Z? 特征Q多为新生界松散及半固结沉积物覆盖,所? 及工作面的大煤层属二叠山西组?8201 工作面标 ?260?310 mQ地面标?140?150 mQ走向长q? ?90 mQ們֐长^?120 mQ^均煤厚ؓ 5.2 mQ^? 倾角18? Q?-2Q? 形和挠度、主梁位UM及塔柱摆?。虽然桥梁监 对象类别较多,但概括v来主要有水^及竖直方 向的位移。传l监手D|利用水准仪、全站A? GPS对布讑֜桥体上某些既定的点进行多ơ观,? 到测点的三维坐标Q以部分点的位移来反映桥梁的 整体Ud情况。该cL法以其独特的灉|性及高精 度一直沿用至今,但是存在自动化程度不高、作业效 Q?-4Q? ? 率低{不? q年来,大量学者对桥梁变Ş监测Ҏq行? Q?Q? 研究。刘芳亮{?在分析广东江大桥几何结构特 炏V受力状态、GPSpȝ安装l护隑ֺ、经性等因素 后,在桥梁关键部位布设测点,建立?GPS 观测p? l,使用差分定位后的量_ֺ可达到厘cQ通过 数据l计分析Q认为桥梁位Ud形协调且对称Q大? l构处于安全状态。该Ҏ监测数据量少且需要? 择合适的观测时段Qƈ且需要采用正的数据校正 模型来减电d延迟、对层延迟和多路径效应Q? Q? 6Q? 监测自动化程度不高。黄生n{?分析了苏通大? 工程监测需要,Z量机器人和 GPS 自主研发? q程实时监测pȝQ该pȝ可以实时、全天候、自? 获取观测点的三维坐标。通过在桥梁关键部位布? GPS 监测点和镜相结合的方式Q长期、实时地获取 了桥梁烦塔和钢箱梁的位移数据Qؓ苏通大桥安? 评估及预警提供了可靠依据。该pȝh操作 单、自动化E度高等优势Q但量机器人需要长期固 定,需要采取专业的保护措施Q设备运行成本高Q观 距d镜识别的准性和E_性也是不定? 素之一? l预计,工作面全采后对该桥媄响的下沉gؓ 2 890? 990 mm。由于石拱桥l构整体性比较差Q? 若地下煤层开采后Q拱桥沉降不均,发生弯扭Q可? 会导致拱角发生破坏,致全桥l构不稳定? 该石拱桥为浆砌片石结构,U|面如?2 所C? 若采动媄响到桥梁Q由于桥梁的基底面积较小、重? 较高Q很Ҏ受到破坏从而媄响铁路正常运营。ؓ 相对而言Q应用三l激光扫描技术进行变形监 ,可以获取目标整体量数据Q满一般的生? 践需要,讑֤操作单灵z,可显著改善操作h员的 作业环境。目前该技术在桥梁变Ş监测斚w应用 案例有限Q国内也未Ş成统一的科学理论和作业? Q? 9Q? 此,采用在原桥拱圈内侧套拱方法进行加固(?Q?Q? 拱圈加固厚度?0 cmQ主{采?ϕ 22 mm钢筋Q与? 桥采用锚杆连接,q在桥梁两侧均设|钢{网Q? 梁内外连接成整体Q增强桥梁的抗弯和抗扭曲能力Q? 防止扭曲变ŞQ得桥体下降均匀Q从而保证桥梁结 Q? 7Q? 范,数据处理斚w很大E度上还需要h工干?? 为实现对矿区桥梁变Ş的高_ֺ、高效率监测Q本? I以某矿区铁路桥煤柱二块工作面?8201工作面上 方的桥梁ZQ采用三l激光扫描技术进行监分 析? Q? 10Q? 构安全与E_ 。加固方案实施后Q需要从整体? 监测桥梁l构的变形情况,在桥面布|的常规观测 Q? 6Q?1Q? 站只能监到桥面位移{信? 无法提取到桥体详l的倾斜、扭曲等信息 Q监信息有限, Q? 12-13Q? 。采? 1 桥梁概况 牛薛铁路支U上跨牤牛河的一座上承式实腹 三维Ȁ光扫描方式,不仅能分析出铁\桥详l的I? 间姿态变化,q能获取桥梁l构的变形信息? 石砌拱桥Q位于某矿区铁\桥煤׃块工作面?8201 · 189 · ȝ520? ? ? ? ? 2019q第10? 2 . 2 外业数据采集 三维Ȁ光扫描外业数据采集流E与传统量c? |包括制定观测Ҏ、实地踏勘选点、高_ֺ控制 Q?4-15Q? 量、三l激光扫描等 ? Q?Q制定观方案。扫描前Ҏ相关资料Q了? 现场地理环境及工作面实际开采情况,定地表? 沉媄响边界,选取影响边界以外的控制点作ؓ每次 Q? 16Q? 扫描的基准点 ? Q?Q实地踏勘选点。根据现场情况,选取沉陷? 域以外的E_区域布设控制点,׃扫描角度及遮 挡的原因Q沿桥梁两侧及桥面共布设?6 个扫描站Q? 目的是完整采集桥墩、桥面、桥ql构的信息? Q?Q控制测量。控制网采用闭合导线形式? 设,按照三等导线_ֺq行观测Q采用徕?TM30 ? 量机器hQ测角精度ؓ 0.5 sQ测距精度ؓ 1 mmu -6 ×10 Q对控制点进行观,控制|测量完毕后q行 Q?7Q? 1 易^差等工作 ? Q? 4Q三l激光扫描。由于现场条仉Ӟ扫? 2 . 1 外业扫描仪器_ֺ 本研I外业监数据采集用Riegl VZ-1000? 数据采集与处? 仪架讑֜已知点上Q在另一个已知点上布设标靶用 作后视,多站扫描之后获得观测对象的完整点云数 据? 2 l激光扫描AQA器主要的技术指标如?所C? 2 . 3 数据预处? 外业数据采集完毕以后Q由于数据量大、含有很 多噪声点Q且每站点云坐标不统一Q需要对数据q行 Q? 18Q? 预处理,主要包括d、配准、分割等 ? Q?Q去噪。由于存在树木、植被遮挡以及行人? 车辆{原因,点云数据中会含有量的离散点。ؓ 降低q部分噪声点对后l数据处理的影响Q需要将 q部分噪声点剔除? Riegl VZ-1000 ?l?Ȁ ?????U?_??? 2 mm/100 mQ本研究扫描仪与铁\桥的直线距离U? 5 mQ铁路桥整体量距离?5~50 mQ测量误差约 2 1 Q? 2Q配准。在扫描Ӟ每站扫描数据都处于A? mmQ较常规的全站A、GPS {具有更高的_ֺQ满? 桥梁变Ş监测要求? 自n的坐标系中。本研究采用后视定向方式点? · 190 · օ元等Q矿区桥梁变形监的三维Ȁ光扫描技? 2019q第10? 转换臛_地坐标系Q后视定向方法本质上也是利用 标靶拼接方式QRiscan Pro 软gq提供了一U精配准 方式。该功能Z点云数据生成一定数量的光斑q? 面,调整各期相同光斑q面法向量的夹角辑ֈ最, 墩提?ҎqxU,l计斜率k的变化情况,l果? ?? Q?9Q? 从而得各期点云达到最高配准精? ? Q? 3Q分剌Ӏ由于三l激光扫描初扫是 360全方 位扫描,而且扫描距离U? kmQ会采集到大量的冗余 Q? 20Q? 数据Q需要从中分割出有用数据 ? 3 桥梁变Ş监测 3 . 1 水^Ud及下沉值提? ?Riscan Pro 软g中提取两期桥墩相同部位的 点云Q经q间隔ؓ0.01 m重采样之后,计算桥墩重心 Q?1Q? 的变化信?Q结果如?所C? # p2可知Q? 墩沿水^方向Ud48 mmQ竖直方 p4可知Q水qx率接q?Q证明桥梁在横桥? 上几乎是水^的。由于铁路桥宽度?4.5 mQ斜率差 与宽度的乘积可视为左右两侧在竖直方向上下沉差Q? # 向上下沉 290 mmQ? 墩沿水^方向上移?46 mmQ竖 直方向上下沉 289 mmQ桥梁顺桥向两端发生不均匀 沉降Q沉降差? mmQ由桥墩下沉计算的顺桥向倾斜 gؓ0.81 mm/m? # # 1 墩位|左右下沉差?8.39 mmQ? 墩左右下沉差? # 20.08 mmQ即桥梁在横桥向整体向南倾斜Q? 墩位|? 在扫描期_使用高精度全站A量了铁路桥 首尾两端的两个控制点Q结果如?所C? # 斜量?1.86 mm/mQ? 墩位|倾斜量ؓ 4.46mm/m。可 # # 见,2 桥墩倾斜量大?1 桥墩Q桥梁在一定程度上? 生了扭曲? 3 . 3 桥向数据分? 用同一q面沿横桥向中uU在首末两端边跨? 始位|截取厚度ؓ 0.045 m 的切片,两^面相?40 mQ沿竖直方向选取同一位置的点Q测量各自的下沉 |l果如图5所C? Ҏ?2、表 3 可知Q由于控制点位置q离桥墩Q? 因此水^Ud相差 5 mmQ在竖直方向上相?4 mmQ? 与点云拟合得出的桥墩变Ş情况保持一致? 3 . 2 横桥向数据分? ׃铁\桥长度(48.6 mQ远大于宽度Q?.5 mQ,? 横桥向采用直U方E拟合。由于坐标系 X 轴沿桥 向方向,因此提取的桥墩q投媄至YZ面上Q? 二维直线方程 y = kx + b 拟合q。由于直U点云是 U性的、均匀的,所以利用两点式的直U方E式q行 U性插倹{图 4 所C用U性插值D的方法拟合棱 U?的结果,拟合的均Ҏ误差?.145 mm。每个桥 由图 5 可知Q桥梁左侧部分下沉均gؓ 295.6 · 191 · ȝ520? ? ? ? ? 2019q第10? mmQ标准差?3.978 mmQ右侧部分下沉均gؓ 324 mmQ标准差?2.47 mmQ下沉值在均值附q上下L 动,h偶然性和随机性,在误差理Z属于偶然? 差;下沉差ؓ28.4 mmQ即桥梁右侧下沉大于左侧Q最 大下沉量位于桥梁右侧边跨起始位置Qؓ324 mmQ顺 桥向倾斜gؓ0.71 mm/mQ倾斜角度与水qx向的? 角约2.5‟? 基变形值小?2 mmQ在扫描仪精度范围内可以忽略 不计。在监测的时间范围内桥梁加固辑ֈ了预期效 果,桥梁l构能够保持一定的E_性? ???? Q? 1Q?邓咯中,谭志,? 中国矿业大学出版C,?0Q?{?..变Ş监测及沉陷工E学QMQ?徐州Q? Deng KazhongQTan ZhixiangQJiang YanQet al.Deformation Monitor? ing and Subsidence EngineeringQMQ?Xuzhou:China University of Mining and Technology PressQ?014. 3 . 4 桥梁l构变Ş 为监铁路桥自nl构变ŞQ在每一期数据上 沿桥梁侧面切下厚度ؓ0.45 m的切片,利用特征点将 两期桥梁侧面数据寚wQ以便进行比较。将W一? 桥侧面点云,?018q?月采集的点云装成面Q与 W二期侧面点云数据比较,l果如图 6 所C,标准? 差ؓ4.3 mm? Q?Q?余`儒,王佐才,D大P{?Z应变监测的桥面板弯曲变Ş? 量EJQ?安徽建筑Q?019Q?6Q?Q:151-154. 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