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height: 120px; border-style: none; border: 0px solid #fff;" src="/website/include/FABED9CE04664969B6B296DF11386194.html"></iframe> <!-- 文章 start--> <div class="container"> <div class="enterprise-info-box"> <div class="enterprise-info-category-descr"> <img src="/resource/website/article/Content/img/enterprise-info-category-descr.jpg" /> <a href="/index.html">首页</a> >> <a href="/website/article/11/index.html">文献频道</a> >> <a href="/website/article/1110/index.html">矿业论文</a> >> 正文 </div> <div class="enterprise-info-mainbody"> <span id="id" style="display: none;">2958464B70D2456092BC2C936AA09AAA</span> <div class="title">Z倾斜摄媄与BIM的矿山实景徏模方法研I?/div> <div class="sub-title">2019-11-04</div> <!-- D start --> <div class="introduction"> 针对传统矿山建模~Z真实感、地表及光着物缺乏可控性、无法实时监控露天矿山开采进度等?I提出了基于倾斜摄媄和徏{信息模型(Building Information ModelQBIMQ的矿山实景建模Ҏ。通过利用倾斜?影技术生产的 DEM ?DOM 构徏矿山实景地Ş模型Q再l合最优相片选择、遮挡修正、纹理编辑、纹理映等处理 技术,倾斜影像映射?BIM 地物模型上构建实景地物模型,最后在 Unity3D q_中进行集成发布,实现寚w天矿 山开采进度的实时监控。研I表明:利用所提徏模方法一斚w可以构徏h极强真实感的矿山地表及地物模型, 为矿׃l场景提供良好的可控性和交互性,另一?.. </div> <!-- D start --> <!-- 正文 --> <div class="mainbody"> <div style="display:none"> Series No. 520 October 2019 ? ? METAL MINE ? ? ȝ 520 ? 2019 q第 10 ? Z倾斜摄媄与BIM的矿山实景徏模方法研I? 曑־?Q? ? ? ? ?Q?1 Q? 1. 滁州学院地理信息与旅游学院,安徽 滁州239000Q?. 安徽地理信息集成应用协同创新中心Q安?滁州 239000Q? 3 . 中国民航大学通航学院Q天z?东丽 300300Q? ??针对传统矿山建模~Z真实感、地表及光着物缺乏可控性、无法实时监控露天矿山开采进度等? I提出了基于倾斜摄媄和徏{信息模型(Building Information ModelQBIMQ的矿山实景建模Ҏ。通过利用倾斜? 影技术生产的 DEM ?DOM 构徏矿山实景地Ş模型Q再l合最优相片选择、遮挡修正、纹理编辑、纹理映等处理 技术,倾斜影像映射?BIM 地物模型上构建实景地物模型,最后在 Unity3D q_中进行集成发布,实现寚w天矿 山开采进度的实时监控。研I表明:利用所提徏模方法一斚w可以构徏h极强真实感的矿山地表及地物模型, 为矿׃l场景提供良好的可控性和交互性,另一斚w可以实现寚w头矿山开发进度的_监控Q对于促q智? 矿山h一定的借鉴意义? 关键?智慧矿山 矿山实景建模 倾斜摄媄 BIM Unity3D DEM DOM 中图分类?TD17 文献标志?A 文章~号 1001-1250Q?019Q?10-172-06 DOI 10.19614/j.cnki.jsks.201910027 Research on Mine Real Scene Modeling Method Based on Oblique Photography and BIM Zeng Weibo1 Tong Kuang3 Jiang Ling1Q?2 Q? Q? 1. School of Geographic Information and TourismQChuzhou UniversityQChuzhou 239000QChinaQ?. Anhui Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Integration and ApplicationQChuzhou 239000QChinaQ?. School of General AviationQCivil Aviation University of ChinaQTianjin 300300QChinaQ? Abstract Aiming at the lack of realism on the traditional mine modelingQthe lack of controllability of the surface and its attachmentsQand the inability to monitor the progress of open pit mining in real timeQa real scene modeling method based on tilt photography and building information modelQBIMQis proposed.By using DEM and DOM produced by tilt photography technologyQthe mine real terrain model is constructedQand the optimal image selectionQocclusion correctionQtexture editingQ? texture mapping and other processing techniques are combined to map the oblique image to the BIM feature model to construct the real landscape.The model is finally integrated and released in the Unity3D platform to achieve real-time monitoring of open pit mining progress.The study results show that the above method can construct a mine surface and ground object model with strong realismQand provide good controllability and interaction characteristics for the three- dimensional scene of the mineQbesides thatQit can reach the precise monitoring on the development progress of the outcrop mineQwhich has a certain reference for promoting the construction of smart mine. Keywords Smart mineQMine real scene modellingQOblique photographyQBIMQUnity3DQDEMQDOM 随着C工业生q程来复杂、规模越? 庞大,矿山企业寚w低生产成本、提高生产效益? 强化环境保护的要求也来高Q粗攑֞的传l管 MISQ,在图件生产、测量数据、勘探数据管理方面,? 于二l图形系l的矿业地理信息pȝ软gq年来也 Q?Q? 得到了大力发?。但是,矿山pȝ在实景地表徏? Q?Q? 理模式已l难以支撑企业发?。随着信息时代? 发展Q我国矿业Y件的发展主要Z生、胦务等? 面的理信息pȝQManagement Information SystemQ? 斚w的发展相对落后,制约着数字矿山向智慧矿? Q?-8Q? ? q进 ?999q首届国际数字地球大会提出数字矿? 基收金稿Ҏ目期 2??9-??-U?0学基金项目(~号Q?1501445Q,安徽省自然科学基金项目(~号Q?608085QD77Q? 作者简?曑־波(1978—)Q男Q讲师,博士? · 172 · 曑־波等Q基于倾斜摄媄与BIM的矿山实景徏模方法研I? 概念以来Q数字矿山向智慧矿山的发展一直是重要 2019q第10? 利用倾斜摄媄生?DEM ?DOM q行矿山地Ş? 速徏模;然后通过?Revit 中对 BIM 模型q行U理? ;最后将实景 BIM 地物模型与实景地物模型导? 到Unity3Dq_中融合ƈ打包发布Q从宏观和微观两 斚wQؓ实现数字矿山向智慧矿q实景可视化提 供服务? Q?-11Q? Q?2Q? 研究方向 。疏C春 地理信息系l(GISQ、全? 囑փ{技术运用到数字矿山Q增Z数字矿山 Q?4Q? pȝ的二三维同步昄能力Q曹希等 、张玉侠{? 对倾斜摄媄和徏{信息模型(BIMQ技术在智慧矿山 实景建模斚w的应用进行了探烦Q但在矿山徏模兼 具可控性和真实性方面的研究E有Ơ缺? Q?3Q? 1. 1 实景地Ş模型构徏 本研I将倾斜摄媄技术与 BIM 模型q行有机l? 合,实现矿山实景建模。首先基于倾斜摄媄技术生 产的数字正射影像图(DOMQ和数字高程模型QDEMQ? q行矿山地Ş模型构徏Q然后利用倾斜摄媄生? 密集点云构徏矿山地物 BIM 白模Qƈq行U理映射 构徏实景 BIM地物模型Q最后在 Unity3Dq_中对? 景地形模型、实?BIM 地物模型及地下模型进行集 成ƈ发布? 为更真实地再现和q原矿山场景Q需要创建真? 的三l实景矿山模型。相较于传统Ҏ?Unity3D 中利?World Composer 插g处理卫星影像和高度图 q行地Ş建模Q通过倾斜摄媄技术生产的 DEM _ֺ 更高、DOM U理更真实。本研究矿山地表实景模型 构徏主要有DEM和DOM生、DOM和DOM预处理? 高度囑֊载、地形纹理脓图、矿山地形模型融?5 ? 步骤Q如?所C? Q?QDEM ?DOM 生。利?Context Capture ? 1 矿山实景建模 件^台对无h取的矿山影像和控制点QGCPQ数 据进行空三加密,获得规则格网 DSM。利?DSM ? 接制作正媄像,会导致房屋或Hv地物边缘出现 波浪或锯齿现象,影响正射影像的成图质量。本? I对 DSM q行自动或h工辅助过滤,仅保留地面上 的点Q构建DEMQ而后对DSMq行影像匀光和正射U? 正处理,获取矿山DOM。其中,DEM是ؓ了生成高? 图,导入 Unity3D 后创建矿山地形,DOM 则是用作? 形图的纹理? 倾斜摄媄技术是q年来发展v来的一Ҏ的测 Q?5Q? 量技?。传l徏模生产工艺复杂、成本高、徏模精 度不高,无法满大范围三l徏模需要,倾斜摄媄? q无人机q_对地物进行垂直、多角度航拍获取? 像,在Context Capture、PhotoMatrix{Y件中通过对多 分L率、多视角影像q行密集匚w、空中三角测量计 、构?TIN 模型、构Zl白模、纹理映等步骤 Q? ?1Q,可以快速获得三l实景模型和 4DQDEM? Q?6Q? DOM、DSM、DLGQ? ? Q?QDOM ?DEM 预处理。在 ArcMap 软g中将 DOM和DEM的投影坐标统一q叠加;然后裁剪出需 要的区域QƈDOM导出为JPG格式Q最后通过Pho? toshop 软g?TIF 格式?DEM 转化?RAW 格式Q如 ?所C? rain”,3)高事度先囑֯加出载的。R在AWUn格ity?D高中度新囑־d加景到和““TTeerr⁃⁃ rain”中Qƈ输入合适的ѝ宽、高寸Q从而生成矿? 地Ş模型Q在 Unity3D 中加载高度图后的效果如图 4 所C? Q? Q?Q地形纹理脓图。在矿山地Ş模型生成后,? 事先导出?JPG 格式 DOM d?Unity3D 工程资源 文g夹(AssetsQ中Q用作智慧矿山实景地形模型的U? 理,如图5所C? 虽然倾斜摄媄生的三l模型具有精度高、纹? 真实{特点,但是其生产的三维模型是一张整体不 h场景可控性的三角|(TINQ。BIM是在微观斚w 专门处理建筑物内部信息的一Ҏ术,h完善? 1. 2 实景地物模型构徏 斜摄目媄前地Q物Ҏ于型C表D模E型M 地构建Ş大模体型有直? U结方合式;②:①BI倾M 地物模型与DEM地Ş模型直接l合Q③BIM、倾斜? 影地物模型与 DEM 地Ş模型相结合。其中,W一U? 方式可以快速实现实景模型三l可视化Q但是地? Q?7Q? 内部信息Q但是缺真实纹理信息及定位信息 ? 本研I综合考虑倾斜摄媄?BIM 模型的特点,首先 · 173 · ȝ520? ? ? ? ? 2019q第10? 白模Q通过最优像片选择、纹理几何纠正、纹理映? Q? 18-20Q? 个步骤实现BIM真实U理自动映射 Q具体流E如 ?所C? 1 . 2. 1 最优像片选择 首先采用多边形角点判断法判断 BIM 白模每个 面对应的所有像片,然后采用视角法优选出最优像 片。多边Ş角点判断法是?BIM白模各个面多边Ş ?n 个顶点和多边形中心点?n + 1 个点的物方坐 标,利用像片外方位元素反求像点坐标,?n + 1 个点 使用同一个外方位元素都能得到有效像点坐标Q则 模型不具有可控性;W二U方式地表模型具有可? 性但~失实景U理Q第三种方式兼顾?BIM 的可? 性特点但是失MU理的真实性。本研究Z BIM Q? 21Q? 该面应该选择对应的外方位元素的像片组 。由? · 174 · 曑־波等Q基于倾斜摄媄与BIM的矿山实景徏模方法研I? 2019q第10? 对应的像片组不止一个,故通过视角法即Ҏ“法? 矢量与相机摄׃心连接矢量夹?θ 最”的原则 选择最佛_片,如图7所C? 1. 2. 3 U理映射 对于最l得到的BIM白模每个面的正射像片Q在 开源图形库 OSG 中进行纹理映生成实?BIM ? 型,其效果如?所C? 2 试验分析 本研I用可垂直起降的固定翼无h机,安装1 ?Sony DSC-RXRM2 相机Q其焦距?35 mmQ像q大 ؓ 7 952×5 304 像素Q航U相对航?100?50 mQ? 航向和旁向重叠度均ؓ75%Q共飞行3ơ(正射一ơ, 固定倾角与航U相反航向各一ơ)以达C摄像? 效果Q共获取?639 q像片。用 Context Capture 为数 据处理^台生?DOM、DEM 及密集点云数据。首? 采用获取的DOM和DEM数据在Unity3D中进行实? 地Ş模型构徏Q然后基于倾斜摄媄获取的密集点? 数据?Revit 软g中构建矿山地?BIM 白模Q通过最 优像片选择、纹理几何纠正、纹理映步骤实现实? BIM 地物模型构徏Q最后通过 Datasmith 插g?BIM 模型?Revit 中导出ƈ导入 Unity3D 中与实景地Ş? 型进行集成,最l的建模效果如图8所C? 1 . 2. 2 U理几何U正 对于挑选出的角度最的倾斜像片Q通过间接U? 正法对倾斜像片U理q行逐像素纠正,卛_倾斜U? Q?2Q? 理纠正ؓ正射U理 Q具体方法如下? 1Q计地面坐标。BIM白模中点 P 正射U正? 出对应的地面坐标ؓ Q? X = X + MX' 0 Q? Q?Q? { Y = Y + MY' 0 式中QX',Y' ZQ意一?PQ像素中心)相对于纹理面 的像点坐标;X ,Y 为正纹理面左下角BIM白模? 0 0 面角点的地面坐标QM 为正纹理所在媄像的比例 分母? Q?Q计像点坐标。设L像元在原始图像和U? 正后囑փ中的坐标分别? ( x,y ) ? ( X,Y ) Q可用反解公 式(q方程Q计原始图像上的像点坐?P ( x,y ) Q? ì a (X - X )+ bQY - Y Q?+ cQZ - Z Q? 1 5 1 5 1 5 ï ï T ï ( x - x0 y - y0 ) ) = -f = -f a (X - X )+ bQY - Y Q?+ cQZ - Z Q? ׃倾斜摄媄数据采集受地物之间的遮挡限制Q? D地物部分面区域的纹理信息无法采集或者采 集不全,使得实景 BIM 地物模型存在扭曲或空z现 象,如图9所C? 3 5 3 5 3 5 Q? a (X - X )+ bQY - Y Q?+ c (Z - Z Q? 2 5 2 5 2 5 ( ï a (X - X )+ bQY - Y Q?+ cQZ - Z Q? î 3 5 3 5 3 5 Q?Q? 试验表明Q虽然可以实现实景地形模型和实景 BIM 地物模型构徏Q但存在的不xQ①׃倾斜? 影无法采集死角和遮挡区域的纹理信息,D在构 建实?BIM地物模型q行U理映射阶段产生了纹? ~失、纹理扭曲等问题Q②只能实现BIM地物模型? 面纹理映,无法实现 BIM 模型内部及构建纹理映 ? 式中QZ为点P高程|xQy为像点的像^面坐标;x Q? 0 y Qf为媄像的内方位元素;X 5 QY 5 QZ 5 为摄站点的物? 0 I间坐标QXQYQZ 为物方点的物方空间坐标;a i Qb i Qc i Q? i = 1Q?Q?Qؓ影像?个外方位角元素组成的9个方 向余弦倹{? 3Q灰度内插与赋倹{计的像点坐标 P Q? ( x,y ) 不一定位于像元中心,有必要进行逐像灰度内插? 3 l?? 倾斜摄媄与BIM相结合,对矿山实景徏模方? 首先采用双线性内插法求得 P 点灰度?g ( x,y ) Q? ??P ??????l?U??????Q即 q行了研I。研I表明:所提出的矿山实景徏模方 法可有效兼顾倾斜摄媄数据U理的真实性和 BIM? 型的可控性,在今后工作中Q将q一步充分利用倾斜 G ( X,Y ) = g ( x,y ) Q从而实现倾斜U理逐像素正纠 正? · 175 · ȝ520? ? ? ? ? 2019q第10? ment scheduling chart drawing and equipment time utilization anal? ysis systemQJQ?Metal MineQ?016Q?Q?160-164. Q? 7Q?余小?Z矿山物联|的Ud视频监控pȝ关键技术研I? Q? DQ?杭州Q浙江大学,2016. Yu Xiaobo.Research on Key Technologies of Mobile Video Surveil? lance System Based on Mine Internet of ThingsQDQ?Hangzhou:Zhe? jiang UniversityQ?016. Q? 8Q?王国法,? 径EJQ?煤炭学报虹,Q??1怀8Q伟43Q,{?Q?Q智29?-?0?. 2025 情景目标和发展\ Wang GuofaQWang HongQRen HuaiweiQet al.Scenario goal and de? velopment path of intelligent coal mine 2025QJQ?Journal of Coal MineQ?018Q?3Q?Q?295-305. Q? 9Q?Zhang S RQWang B TQLi X EQet al.Research and application of im? proved gas concentration prediction model based on grey theory and BP neural network in digital mineQJQ?Procedia CIRPQ?016Q?6: 71-475. 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