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</div> <!-- D start --> <!-- 正文 --> <div class="mainbody"> <div style="display:none"> Series No. 520 October 2019 ? ? METAL MINE ? ? ȝ 520 ? 2019 q第 10 ? 三维Ȁ光扫描监相似材料模型含水率研究 ? ? 陈伟? 查剑? 仲崇? 朱鹏E? 李思豪11 Q? 1. 江苏省资源环境信息工E重点实验室Q江?徐州 221116Q?. 皖北煤电集团有限责Q公司五沟煤矿Q安?淮北 235131Q?. 兖州煤业股䆾有限公司南屯煤矿Q山?宁 273515Q? ??怼材料模拟是研I岩层移动与破坏的主要手D,怼材料模型的含水率与模型强度密切相兟뀂高 效监相似材料模型含水率变化是相似材料模拟试验是否成功的关键。探讨了采用三维Ȁ光扫描技术进行相? 材料模型含水率监的可行性。首先分析了Ȁ光反强度g怼材料含水率之间的关系Q进而讨Z三维Ȁ? 扫描监测怼材料模型含水率的_ֺ。研I表明:Ȁ光反强度值对怼材料含水率较为敏感,两者之间ؓ指数 关系Q三l激光扫描监相似材料模型含水率的精度可辑ֈ 0.23%Q能够满相似材料模型含水率监测的精度要 求,为相似材料模型含水率监测提供了一条新途径? 关键?怼材料模型 三维Ȁ光扫?Ȁ光反强?含水? 中图分类?TD325 文献标志?A 文章~号 1001-1250Q?019Q?10-194-04 DOI 10.19614/j.cnki.jsks.201910031 Study on Moisture Monitoring of Similar Model Materials by 3D Laser Scanning Han Lei Chen Weiqiang Zha Jianfeng1 Zhong Chongwu3 Zhu Pengcheng1 Li Sihao12 1 2 Q? 1. Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information EngineeringQXuzhou 221116QChinaQ? 2 . Wugou Coal MineQWanbei Coal and Electricity Group Co.QLtd.QHuaibei 235131QChinaQ? 3 . Nantun Coal MineQYanzhou Coal Mining Co.QLtd.QJining 273515QChinaQ? Abstract Similar material simulation is the main method to study the movement and destruction of rock formationQand the moisture of similar material model is closely related to the model strength.How to effectively monitor the moisture change of similar material model quickly and efficiently is the key to the success of similar simulation experiment.The feasibility of us? ing 3D laser scanning technology was explored to monitor moisture content of similar material model.FirstlyQthe relationship between the laser reflection intensity value and the moisture of similar materials is analyzedQand then the accuracy of 3D laser scanning to monitor the moisture of similar materials is studied.The study results show that the laser reflection intensity is sen? sitive to the moisture of similar materialsQand they have an exponential relationship.The accuracy of 3D laser scanning to mon? itor the moisture of similar materials can reach 0.23%Qwhich can fully meet the precise requirements of monitoring the mois? ture of similar materials model.The study results provide a new way for monitoring the moisture content of similar material model. Keywords Similar materials modelQ?D laser scanningQLaser reflection intensityQMoisture Q? 7Q? 怼材料模型以其直能够观观察岩体内部Ud 变化而变?。当含水率过低时Q会D其强度随着 含水率的~慢降低而急剧增加Q致使模型中岩层? 设计强度显著偏离设计|q而降低相似材料模? 与变形、模拟各U连l或非连l的变Ş和破坏特征, Q? 1-5Q? 成ؓ岩层Ud与破坏方面的重要研究手段 。相? 材料模型通常由沙子、石膏、石灰等制成Q其中石膏? 石灰是胶l物Q石膏、石灰的含量军_了模拟材料所 Q?Q? 的准性。李怀展等 分析了相似材料含水率与其 抗压强度、抗拉强度的关系Qƈq一步讨Z怼? 料水分挥发量与材料抗压强度近似呈指数关系Q材 Q? 6Q? 代表的岩层种c?。由于石膏、石灰是气硬性材料, D了该cd合材料的强度会随着其自w含水率? Q?Q? 料水分挥发量显著影响模型的模拟结果;覃双煜等 基收EKҎ目期 ?01??0?-U?9学基金项目(~号Q?1641036Q? 作者简? ?(1995—)Q男Q硕士研I生。通讯作?查剑锋(1982—)Q男Q副教授Q博士,士研究生导师? · 194 · ? 等Q三l激光扫描监相似材料模型含水率研究 2019q第10? 研究了模型含水率与模型强度之间的关系Q认为当 模型含水率ؓ 2%~4%Ӟ模型岩层强度变化于E? 定,此时为模型监的有效旉Dc? 怼材料模型中的水分在自然环境中逐步挥发Q? 相应的含水率也逐渐降低Q如何快速、高效监相? 材料模型含水率,q在模型的有效时间段内开展试? 是保证相似材料模型试验成功的关键。相似材料模 型含水率监测的传l方法是用湿度计q行,_ֺ 较低Q仅能进行定Ҏ,得到的数据量,不具备代 表性,q且Ҏ型有一定的破坏性,无法有效监测? 型含水率的整体变化。一般来_Ȁ光反强度与? 期进行正监,获取不同含水率条件下试块表面 的反强度倹{试验过E中Q三l激光扫描A与试 块之间的距离讑֮?4 mQ如?2 所C。根据文? Q?4Q研I结果,设计两次观测旉间隔?2 h。试? Q?0Q? 物体的含水率有?Q当被测物体的含水率较高 Ӟ其对Ȁ光能量有较强的吸收作用,从而导致反? 强度低。从q一物理现象出发Q理ZԌ可以通过 探究Ȁ光反强度与被测物体含水率之间的关系? 反演被测物体的含水率Q这一思\在古建筑物含水率 采用的三l激光扫描A型号为Rigel VZ-1000? Q?1Q? Q?2Q? 反演 、植被含水率监测 {方面得C一定程度的 研究Q而关于三l激光扫描A监测怼材料模型? 水率斚w的研IӞ成果较少。三l激光扫描技术是 否能够有效监相似模型材料含水率变化Q需要解 决两个问题:①激光反强度是否对含水率变化敏 感;②三l激光扫描监相似材料含水率的精度是 否能够满相似材料模型试验的_ֺ要求。本研究 采用室内试验Ҏ对上q问题进行分析? 取试块的含水率,采用物理Ҏ定了扫 描时刻试块的含水率。具体而言Q相似材料试块含 水率定步骤如下Q? Q? 1Q将制作完成的试块放|在预先~号的托? 中,托盘质量?M托盘 Q用_֯电子U(0.1 gQ进行称重? 2Q每ơ试块观完成后Q将攄在托盘中的试 Q? 块进行称重ƈ记录 Mi,nQi 件编Pn 次 1 Ȁ光反强度与怼材料含水率的关系 敎ͼ。将试块和托盘一同放|在q燥׃q行烘干Q? ׃托盘是合金材料,故在烘干q程中其质量不会? 生变化,得出烘干后放|在托盘中的试块质量 Mi?? 1 . 1 怼材料模型试块制作 在岩层移动与破坏研究中通常岩层分Y? Q? 13Q? 层、中岩层和岩?。本研究选择?U岩性配 比如?所C? Q? 3Q据下式计算试块的含水率ρQ? M - M i,n i,? ρ = × 100 Q?. Q?Q? M - M i,? 托盘 1 . 3 试块含水率与Ȁ光反强度的关系 本研I?3 U不同岩性试块进行三l激光扫 描,p行了30ơ扫描,获取了不同含水率条g下试 块表面的反射强度Q同时称取了不同扫描时刻试块 的质量,计算Z相应的含水率Q两者之间的关系? ?所C? 注:骨料为沙子;配料为石膏和酸钙? Ҏ?中列丄配比Q针对Y岩、中岩、硬? 分析?可知Q不同岩性的怼材料试块在反? 强度g都显C出了相似的变化q程。随着怼? 料试块含水率的减,Ȁ光反强度值逐渐增大Q相 似材料含水率与激光反强度D似呈指数关系Q? U岩性的怼材料试块在相同的含水率时有着不同 的激光反强度|?3 U相似材料含水率相同Ӟ 岩的反强度值最大,中硬岩次之,软岩最,? 当含水率?2%~4%ӞȀ光反强度值差异显著? 3 U岩性各制作?10 个长、宽、高均ؓ 15 cm 的正? 体试块,如图 1 所C,试块分别放入预先编L? 盘中Q方便后l称重操作? 1 . 2 怼材料试块含水率监的三维Ȁ光扫描方? 试验在温度ؓ 24℃、湿度ؓ 70%的恒温恒湿室 内环境下q行。试块被攄在与三维Ȁ光扫描A? 心相同的高度上,被面对准三维Ȁ光扫描AQ定 · 195 · ȝ520? ? ? ? ? 2019q第10? 含水率、物理方法测定的含水率以及相应的D差? ?所C? 因此可以认ؓQ激光反强度值对于相似材料模? 试块的含水率是极为敏感的Q采用该Ҏq行怼 材料模型含水率监具有可行性? 采用Origin软g的拟合工Lq行数据拟合Q获 取了不同配比的试块含水率与激光反强度g? 的关p,如图3所C,其拟合公式ؓ 式中Q参?a 、by?ca取ex值p 以及?数c Q拟合结果见?? ( -x b ) Q?Q? Ҏ?3 l制了两U不同方法获取的D差? 布图Q图 4Q。由?4 分析可知Q采用三l激光扫? 监测获取的含水率与物理方法获取的含水率残? 值分布不h显著的规律性,D差值的分布区间? Q? -0.44%Q?.39%Q。因而可以认为采用三l激光扫? Ҏ获取的含水率与实际含水率之间不存在系l偏 差,D差主要为偶然误差? 2 三维Ȁ光扫描监相似模型试块的_ֺ? ? 2 . 1 试验Ҏ 前述试验表明Q不同相似材料的含水率与Ȁ? 反射强度值具有密切关p,一步探I三l激? 扫描仪监相似材料模型含水率的可行性,q需? 三维Ȁ光扫描A监测怼材料含水率的_ֺq行? 析。本研究设计了一l试验,Ҏ?1 中的配比Q针 ҎU岩性各制作?5 件试块。将三维Ȁ光扫描A 中心与试块的距离同样讄? mQ分别对试块q行 了正扫描监,获取了反强度,q而反演出相应 的试块含水率Q即三维Ȁ光扫描监含水率Q同时对 试块q行U重Q然后烘qԌ采用式(2Q计出试块? 实际含水率,即物理方法监含水率。根据两U不 同方法监数据的差异性评Cl激光扫描监相 似材料试块含水率的精度? l过计算Q采用三l激光扫描方法监相似材 料试块含水率的中误差?.23%。文献E9Q提出的? 型含水率理想gؓ 2%~4%Q相应的含水率变化率? 2%。本研究三维Ȁ光扫描监相似材料模型含水率 的中误差Uؓ该值的 1/9Q因此可认ؓ该方法的量 _ֺ完全能够满怼材料模型含水率监的_ֺ 要求? 2 . 2 试验l果分析 试验p行了 15 ơ,三维Ȁ光扫描监获取的 3 l?? 怼材料模拟是研I岩层移动与破坏的主要手 · 196 · ? 等Q三l激光扫描监相似材料模型含水率研究 2019q第10? C,1998. D,而相似材料模型的含水率与模型强度密切? 兟뀂提Z采用三维Ȁ光扫描方法监相似材料模 型含水率的方案。研I表明:三维Ȁ光扫描监相 似材料模型含水率的精度ؓ 0.23%Q远高于模型监测 _ֺ要求Q较湿度计监优势显著,为相似材料模? 含水率监提供了一条新途径? Li Hongchang.Similar Simulation Experiment of Mine PressureQMQ? Xuzhou:China University of Mining and Technology PressQ?998. Q? 7Q?刘丹?高水速凝材料水化化机理研究QDQ?徐州Q中国矿业大 学,2015. Liu Dandan.Study on Hydrating and Hardening Mechanisms of High-water Rapid-setting MaterialQDQ?Xuzhou:China University of Mining and TechnologyQ?015. Q? 8Q?Li H ZQGuo G LQZha J F.Study on time-varying characteristics of similar material model strength and the regulation measuresQJQ?En? vironmental Earth SciencesQ?017Q?6Q?5Q?1-11. ???? Q? 1Q?陆玉根,孙国权,? 料模拟试验EJQ?金属矿刚山,{,2.0?5落(法S1Q开: ?-6? Ud塌陷规律怼? Lu YugenQSun GuoquanQXu GangQet al.Similar material simula? tion experiment of the law of rock movement and collapseQJQ? Met? al MineQ?015QS1Q?1-6. Q? 9Q?覃双煜,郭广C|查剑锋,{?恒温恒湿实验室铺讄似材料模? 适宜温湿度D定方法EJQ?金属矿山Q?017Q?Q:37-42. Qin ShuangyuQGuo GuangliQZha JianfengQet al.Method of setting optimal temperature and humidity of similar model in constant tem? perature and humidity laboratoryQJQ?Metal MineQ?017Q?Q?37-42. Q?Q?Q郭从军Q南存全Q王 ?q距ȝ层覆岩移动相似材料模? Q? 10Q?Sanna KQHenri NQAnssi KQet al.Effect of target moisture on laser scanner intensityQJQ?IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Re? mote SensingQ?010Q?8Q?Q?2128-2136. JQ?金属矿山Q?015Q?Q:10-15. Guo CongjunQNan CunquanQWang Dong.Similar material simula? tion experiment on overburden rock movement of close- distance coal seamsQJQ?Metal MineQ?015Q?Q?10-15. Q? 11Q?Pedro M LQDavidO L VQFernando G RQet al.Moisture detection in heritage buildings by 3D laser scanningQJQ?Studies in Conserva? tionQ?016Q?1QS1Q?46-54. Q? 3Q?Guo G LQZha J FQMiao X XQet al.Similar material and numerical simulation of strata movementlaws with long wall fully mechanized gangue backfillingQJQ?Procedia Earth & Planetary ScienceQ?009 Q? 12Q?GaultonQRQDansonQF MQRamirez F AQet al.The potential of dual- wavelength laser scanning for estimating vegetation moisture con? tenQt JQ?Remote Sensing of EnvironmentQ?013Q?32Q?Q? 32-39. Q?Q?1089-1094. Q?Q?Wu KQCheng G LQZhou D W.Experimental research on dynamic Q? 13Q?何国清,? 业大学出版社伦,1Q??1? 娣,{?矿山开采沉陷学QMQ?徐州Q中国矿 movement in strata overlying coal mines using similar material mod? elingQJQ?Arabian Journal of GeosciencesQ?015Q?Q?Q?6521-6534. He GuoqingQYang LunQLing GengdiQet al.Mining SubsidenceQMQ? Xuzhou:China University of Mining and Technology PressQ?991. Q?Q? ? 敬,D书?怼材料模型内部位移试研究QJQ?矿山压力 与顶板管理,2003Q?Q:93-94. Q? 14Q?Zha J FQLi H ZQGuo G LQet al.Influence of temperature and humid? ity on similar material and its control measuresQJQ?Environmental Earth SciencesQ?017Q?6Q?1Q?1-11. Chai JingQDuan Shuwu.Internal displacement measurement of simi? lar material modelsQJQ?Ground Pressure and Strata ControlQ?003 Q?Q?93-94. 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